A dynamical vortex initialization (DVI) scheme is implemented on unstructured meshes for the global model MPAS for typhoon forecasts. The DVI extracts the departure vortex within a specified radius of the vortex center and implants this vortex at the observed vortex location in continuously cycled 1-h integrations of the model. The cycling integration is stopped when either the simulated central sea level pressure or maximum wind speed of the typhoon has reached the value in the best track data, denoted as P-match or V-match, respectively. The DVI may spin up the initial vortex with a more contracting eyewall, but still keeping the same size of the outer vortex. Forecasts for 16 typhoons over the western North Pacific in 2015–20 are investigated. Predictions from the experiments with the 60–15-km variable-resolution MPAS mesh show that both P-match and V-match significantly improve the track forecasts, where V-match mostly requires less cycle runs than P-match. Cycling results with P-match or V-match are also dependent on the choice of physics suites within MPAS. Positive impacts are larger for V-match than P-match using the mesoscale reference physics suite, with significantly improved track forecasts and earlier intensity forecasts. Intensity differences resulting from the DVI have gradually decreased with forecast time, which are closely correlated to the differences in the averaged tropospheric potential vorticity of the inner vortex. The DVI with the 60–15–3-km variable-resolution mesh also works well and improves intensity forecasts. The DVI can also help produce asymmetric structures and spin up inner vortex cores for typhoons near high topography, which leads to improved intensity forecasts.
- Forecasting techniques
- Model initialization
- Numerical weather prediction/forecasting