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Laminar and turbulent minimum ignition energies (MIEL and MIET) of a lean primary reference automobile fuel (PRF95; 95% isooctane/5% n-heptane) and air mixture at the equivalence ratio of 0.8 at 373 K with large Lewis number Le ≈ 2.95 >> 1 using small and large pin-to-pin electrode spark gaps (dgap) are measured in a dual-chamber, constant temperature/pressure, fan-stirred 3D cruciform burner capable of generating near-isotropic turbulence. Each MIE datum is statistically determined at 50% ignitability by 18–30 repeated runs over a range of ignition energy (Eig). We find two ignition transition (IT) modes. (1) A non-monotonic IT at small dgap = 0.8 mm with the lowest MIET = 13.9 mJ (< MIEL = 30.1 mJ) occurring at a critical u′c ≈ 1.82 m/s due to the coupling effects between differential diffusion and turbulence, where u′ is the r.m.s. turbulent fluctuating velocity. When u′ > u′c, MIET increases drastically (>> MIEL), because turbulence re-asserts its dominant role. (2) A regular IT at large dgap = 2 mm is found where MIEL is only 2.05 mJ, in which the increasing slopes of MIET with u′ change from gradually to exponentially when u′ > u′c ≈ 2.3 m/s. In the post-transition when u′ ≥ u′c, the averaged ratio of MIE at dgap = 0.8-mm and 2-mm (MIE0.8/MIE2.0) is 1.64 > 1, suggesting that using large dgap = 2-mm has a higher ignition probability than using small dgap = 0.8-mm for the lean-burn gasoline surrogate in intense turbulence. Finally, we estimate the uncertainties of burning velocities at u′ = 0 and 2.76 m/s, which are respectively less than 2% and 6% when using small/large Eig ≈ MIE/70 mJ and/or dgap = 0.8-mm/2-mm. These results are relevant to spark ignition gasoline engines operated in lean-burn turbulent condition.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Combustion and Flame|
|State||Published - Mar 2021|
- Differential diffusion
- Electrode-spark gap
- Laminar and turbulent burning velocities
- Lean primary reference fuel
- Minimum ignition energy
- Non-monotonic and regular ignition transition
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- 2 Finished
1/08/19 → 31/03/21