The Synthesis of Europium-Doped Calcium Carbonate by an Eco-Method as Free Radical Generator Under Low-Intensity Ultrasonic Irradiation for Body Sculpture

Che Yung Kuan, Yu Ying Lin, I. Hsuan Yang, Ching Yun Chen, Chih Ying Chi, Chi Han Li, Zhi Yu Chen, Li Ze Lin, Chun Chen Yang, Feng Huei Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Body sculpture is a common method to remove excessive fat. The diet and exercise are the first suggestion to keep body shape; however, those are difficult to keep adherence. Ultrasound has been developed for fat ablation; however, it could only serve as the side treatment along with liposuction. In the study, a sonosensitizer of europium-doped calcium carbonate (CaCO3: Eu) would be synthesized by an eco-method and combined with low-intensity ultrasound for lipolysis. The crystal structure of CaCO3: Eu was identified by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The morphology of CaCO3: Eu was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The chemical composition of CaCO3: Eu was evaluated by energy-dispersed spectrophotometer (EDS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The electronic diffraction pattern was to further check crystal structure of the synthesized individual grain by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle size was determined by Zeta-sizer. Water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) were used to evaluate the cell viability. Chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (CM-H2DCFDA) and live/dead stain were used to evaluate feasibility in vitro. SD-rat was used to evaluate the safety and efficacy in vivo. The results showed that CaCO3: Eu had good biocompatibility and could produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) after treated with low-intensity ultrasound. After 4-weeks, the CaCO3: Eu exposed to ultrasound irradiation on SD rats could significantly decrease body weight, waistline, and subcutaneous adipose tissue. We believe that ROS from sonoluminescence, CO2-bomb and locally increasing Ca2+ level would be three major mechanisms to remove away adipo-tissue and inhibit adipogenesis. We could say that the combination of the CaCO3: Eu and low-intensity ultrasound would be a non-invasive treatment for the body sculpture.

Original languageEnglish
Article number765630
JournalFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Volume9
DOIs
StatePublished - 19 Nov 2021

Keywords

  • body sculpture
  • calcium carbonate
  • europium
  • reactive oxygen species
  • ultrasound

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