The optical measurement and quantitative analysis of algesia in spodoptera litura larva

Ying Yun Chen, Rong Seng Chang, Mi Yin Tsai, Der Chin Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Muscle vibration measurement has long been an unique scientific study, in general, and the direct reaction of animals to feel pain (algesia), either from vascular or muscle contraction, is a complex perceptual experience. Thus this paper proposes a way to measure animal algesia quantitatively, by measuring the changes in muscle vibration due to a pinprick on the surface of the skin of a Spodoptera litura larva. Using the laser optical triangulation measurement principle, along with a CMOS image sensor, linear laser, software analysis, and other tools, we quantify the subtle object point displacement, with a precision of up to 10 μm, for our chosen Spodoptera litura larva animal model, in which it is not easy to identify the tiny changes in muscle contraction dynamics with the naked eye. We inject different concentrations of formalin reagent (empty needle, 12% formalin, and 37% formalin) to obtain a variety of different muscle vibration frequencies as the experimental results. Because of the high concentrations of reagent applied, we see a high frequency shift of muscle vibration, which can be presented as pain indices, so that the algesia can be quantified.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-174
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the Optical Society of Korea
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2015


  • Algesia
  • Formalin
  • Laser optical triangulation


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