The Mongolian semi-presidential constitution and its democratic performance

Mina Sumaadii, Yu Shan Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


While earlier studies of Mongolian democracy focused on actor-based explanations for its success, this study discusses the previously less examined role of Mongolia’s semi-presidential constitution in the process of democratization. It examines how the semi-presidential political system in Mongolia evolved since 1992 and offers an in-depth examination of the Mongolian semi-presidential form of government institutionalized by the 1992 constitution and its subsequent amendments. Based on this, it also addresses the question of whether the Mongolian semi-presidential constitution was a weakness or a strength to democratization. This study argues that at an early stage when the political forces were learning the rules of the game, the constitution was an overall positive influence on democratization. Moreover, the main weaknesses linked to the constitutional design were more likely to be related to weak institutional control mechanisms that could be resolved at a lower level legal framework.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100-117
Number of pages18
JournalCentral Asian Survey
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022


  • constitution
  • constitutional amendment
  • democratic performance
  • Mongolia
  • premier–presidential
  • semi-presidentialism


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