The influences of a two-tier test strategy on student learning: A lag sequential analysis approach

Tzu Chi Yang, Sherry Y. Chen, Gwo Jen Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Recently, programming skills have become a core competence. Many teaching strategies were developed to improve programming skills. Among them, online tests were widely applied to enhance students learning. Nonetheless, they may not be able to engage students in deep thinking and reflections. Thus, a two-tier test strategy was proposed to address this issue. However, previous research mainly focused on investigating the effectiveness of the two-tier test strategy but there is a lack of studies that investigate why the two-tier test approach is effective. To this end, we developed an online test, where the two-tier test strategy was implemented. Additionally, an empirical study was conducted to explore the influences of the two-tier test approach on students' learning performance and behavior patterns. Pre-test and post-test scores were applied to assess students' learning performance while a lag sequential analysis was used to analyze behavior patterns. Regarding learning performance, the proposed two-tier test can improve students' programming skills. Regarding behavior patterns, the two-tier test approach facilitates students to develop a learning by reviewing strategy, which is useful to improve their programming skills.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)366-377
Number of pages12
JournalComputers and Education
StatePublished - Mar 2015


  • CAL systems
  • Evaluation of
  • Interactive learning environments


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