The Imaging Energetic Particle Spectrometer on Cluster

B. Wilken, W. I. Axford, I. Daglis, P. Daly, W. Güttler, W. H. Ip, A. Korth, G. Kremser, S. Livi, V. M. Vasyliunas, J. Woch, D. Baker, R. D. Belian, J. B. Blake, J. F. Fennell, L. R. Lyons, H. Borg, T. A. Fritz, F. Gliem, R. RathjeM. Grande, D. Hall, K. Kecsueméty, S. Mckenna-Lawlor, K. Mursula, P. Tanskanen, Z. Pu, I. Sandahl, E. T. Sarris, M. Scholer, M. Schulz, F. Sørass, S. Ullaland

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120 Scopus citations

Abstract

The RAPID spectrometer (Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors) for the Cluster mission is an advanced particle detector for the analysis of suprathermal plasma distributions in the energy range from 20-400 keV for electrons, 40 keV-1500 keV (4000 keV) for hydrogen, and 10 keV nucl-1-1500 keV (4000 keV) for heavier ions. Novel detector concepts in combination with pin-hole acceptance allow the measurement of angular distributions over a range of 180° in polar angle for either species. Identification of the ionic component (particle mass A) is based on a two-dimensional analysis of the particle's velocity and energy. Electrons are identified by the well-known energy-range relationship. Details of the detection techniques and in-orbit operations are described. Scientific objectives of this investigation are highlighted by the discussion of selected critical issues in geospace.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-473
Number of pages75
JournalSpace Science Reviews
Volume79
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1997

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