The environmental effects of urban development in Hanoi, Vietnam from satellite and meteorological observations from 1999-2016

Thi Mai Nguyen, Tang Huang Lin, Hai Po Chan

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46 Scopus citations


Since 1990 the Hanoi capital region (or Hanoi metropolitan area) in Vietnam has undergone rapid development, which has gone together with increasing socio-economic growth and prosperity. However, the environmental degradation that has accompanied urban development has raised considerable concern from the public in recent years. This research investigates the effects of urban development on urban sprawl, urban heat island (UHI), and metropolitan weather phenomena that are related to the quality of urban life in the period from 1999-2016. To achieve these objectives, remote sensing technologies were applied to satellite images at three time points (i.e., 1999, 2009, and 2016) that were associated with the meteorological dataset from ground-based stations. The spatial distribution evolution was examined for the land use/land cover changes while using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference built-up index (NDBI). The increasing impact of urban sprawl on UHI intensity is determined based on the land surface temperature (LST) in multi-temporal forms. Increasing urbanization with the development of gradual outward and northward expansion from the city centre intensified the correlation analysis shows that the UHI. The potential formation of new UHI areas in the near future is also indicated. Furthermore, more than 30% of the metropolitan area is decaying in ecological quality according to an assessment of the urban thermal field variance index (UTFVI).With respect to metropolitan weather, the urbanization in Hanoi affected the observation of meteorological parameters revealed that the relative humidity, total rainfall, temperature, and wind speed over both urban and rural areas. The overall results imply that urban development and its environmental effects and impacts have imposed pressing issues and new challenges to sustainable development in the Hanoi metropolitan area.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1768
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2019


  • Ecological assessment
  • Hanoi Vietnam
  • Metropolis weather
  • Remote sensing
  • Urban heat island effect
  • Urbanization


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