In this study, the effects of the temperature, oxygen content in the gas stream and carbon content in ash particles on PCDD/Fs formation on the fly ash surface were investigated. The optimum temperatures for dioxin formation were found at 350°C for boiler ash, 300°C for cyclone ash and 250°C for ESP ash, respectively. Preliminary results indicate that the optimum temperature will decrease as the particle size decreases. When the O2 concentration is varied between 0% and 100%, the optimum oxygen content for PCDD/Fs formation is found to beat 7.5% for cyclone ash, and the PCDD/PCDF ratio increases with the increase of oxygen content. Dioxin formation is observed even for the gas containing no oxygen passed through the fly ash. Hence, other reacted routes that do not need O2 for dioxin formation take place on fly ash. The carbon content in fly ash is varied between 0% and 20% in this study, and the results have indicated that the maximum dioxin formation is to be found at 5%. The precursors are not injected into the fly ash or gas stream in all formation experiments, however, dioxin is still formed in fly ash. Consequently, other chlorinated routes besides Deacon reactions may take place on the fly ash surface.
- Dioxin formation
- Municipal waste incinerators (MW1)
- Oxygen content