Purpose - This paper aims to examine how gender differences influence students' reactions to the use of the annotatable multimedia e-reader (AME). To reach this aim, we develop an AME where various annotation tools are provided to help students learn English in-class and after-class. Design/methodology/approach - An empirical study was conducted with 63 fifth-grade students from an elementary school. A pre-test and post-test were used to identify their prior knowledge and learning achievement, respectively. A questionnaire was applied to identify participants' perceptions towards the AME. Findings - The results show that students' post-test scores are significantly related to after-class behaviour, instead of in-class behaviour. Females prefer to use the text annotation and teachers' voice, but it is voice annotation that is beneficial to improve their learning achievement. Conversely, males prefer to use the text-to-speech only, but it is text annotation that is helpful to improve their learning achievement. Additionally, the ease of use affects males' intention to use the AME to learn English after-class while it has no effects on females. Originality/value - This study not only shows the importance of gender differences but also demonstrates the essence of after-class learning behaviour. More importantly, a framework is proposed to support designers to develop e-readers that can accommodate the preferences of females and males.
- Digital documents
- Electronic books