The effect of intrapsychology learning before and after interpsychology activities with a web-based sharing mechanism

Guo Liang Hsu, Wu Yuin Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Learning is predominantly contributed through the approach, "first interpsychology, and then intrapsychology" called "intra-after inter-psychology." This learning method was also defined in the "Zone of Proximal Development" from the assistance provided by others to the self, as proposed by Vygotsky. In this study, another reverse learning approach, "first intrapsychology, and then interpsychology" called "intra-before inter-psychology" was designed, so as to investigate what kind of learning sequence activities can bring about more effective learning experiences. Furthermore, the Web-based sharing annotation mechanism was employed to facilitate intrapsychology activities. Experimental results from a social course with 151 fifth-grade elementary school participants indicated that the intrapsychology activity plays an important role in students' learning performance, regardless of whether it was structured before or after interpsychology activities. However, formulating learning concepts through textual annotations made in the intrapsychology activity, undertaken before the interpsychology activity, created a psychological tool for mediating interaction in interpsychology activities. In addition, the Web-based sharing mechanism could empower participants' willingness to engage in the intrapsychology activity if the sharing mechanism was conducted before class. Constructing a structure for interpsychology activities has been explored for decades as an effective way to facilitate interaction among group members or to promote learning performance; however, this study further implies that conducting the learning strategy within the intrapsychology activities may be another approach worth further investigation; this is especially true for the strategy designed before interpsychology activities. Implications for practice and recommendations for future research are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-247
Number of pages17
JournalEducational Technology and Society
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2013


  • Annotation tool
  • Interpsychology learning
  • Intrapsychology learning
  • Web-based sharing mechanism


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