Jakarta is the government and economic capital of Indonesia with a consistently increasing population, resulting in high demand for infrastructure development, which has several socio-economic benefits. However, the environmental issues related to an increasing population and built-up area have come to the public's attention in recent years. This research analyses the effects of land use and land cover changes (LULCC) on land surface temperature (LST), the development of urban heat island (UHI), and weather conditions from 2000-2019. Focusing the analysis on remote sensing data, satellite images at two time points (2000 and 2019) were used to investigate the LULCC and its impact on UHI development that were associated with meteorological data from ground-based stations. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) were used to describe the spatial distribution evolution of LULCC along with the urban thermal field variance index (UTFVI) that illustrates the potential impacts of UHI on the quality of life in the urban area. Supervised classification was employed to describe LULCC together with the accuracy of the classification result. UHI areas were extended to the southern and eastern part of Jakarta during the time with an increment of 13%, followed by increasing urban heat island index over a selected urban and rural area. Meanwhile, the decreased number of waters, vegetation, and agriculture area was observed during 2000-2019, followed by the increased number of residence and industry areas. The overall results indicate LULCC plays a critical role in defining the change of LST and meteorological conditions.