Technological process optimization and measurement of image quality of the electrically bifocal metalens

Chun Yuan Fan, Pei Yu Tang, Vin Cent Su, Ko Ting Cheng, Chia Yu Teng, Ming Yu Tsai, Chia Hung Chiang, Kai Lun Xu, Guo Dung J. Su

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This Letter describes the design procedure and process optimization of the electrically bifocal metalens. In our design, horizontal and vertical polarization is manipulated by applying a suitable voltage to a twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN-LC) cell. Each nanostructure is designed to be a rectangular prism, making different polarizations of light experience various phase delays, thus causing bi-focus. We selected lithographical methods to fabricate our metalens because of the minimum physical size, which can be as small as 50 nm, and the maximum aspect ratio, which is as high as 15. Furthermore, to increase the tolerance and make the sidewall vertical and smooth, we coated different characteristics of photoresist sensitivity to the upper and lower layers. After the development, the mushroom-type photoresist makes Ni easier to strip while in the lift-off process, thus increasing the quality of the whole metalens. Our experiment shows that the focal lengths and focusing efficiencies corresponding to the two polarizations are similar to the simulation results. The proposed electrically modulated bifocal metalens can be utilized in different applications and combined with other optical components.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4452-4455
Number of pages4
JournalOptics Letters
Issue number17
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2023


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