In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, many factors may influence the counts of healthy cells, immune cells and viruses. Drug treatment design for the HIV dynamic system is a valuable subject to be studied. This study considers an HIV dynamic system model with some unknown parameters and unmeasurable CD8 + T cell count and proposes a switching control strategy to force all states of the system to achieve a healthy status. It is a switching form with two different drug therapies and is designed based on the Lyapunov function theory such that the states of the HIV system approach the health equilibrium asymptotically without the influence of unknown parameters and unmeasurable cell counts. The values of all states and drug concentrations are assured to be positive in the control process so that the control strategy can satisfy the actual treatment requirements. Finally, a numerical example is illustrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.