Sustainability concept in decision-making: Carbon tax consideration for joint product mix decision

Wen Hsien Tsai, Jui Chu Chang, Chu Lun Hsieh, Tsen Shu Tsaur, Chung Wei Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Carbon emissions are receiving greater scrutiny in many countries due to international forces to reduce anthropogenic global climate change. Carbon taxation is one of the most common carbon emission regulation policies, and companies must incorporate it into their production and pricing decisions. Activity-based costing (ABC) and the theory of constraints (TOC) have been applied to solve product mix problems; however, a challenging aspect of the product mix problem involves evaluating joint manufactured products, while reducing carbon emissions and environmental pollution to fulfill social responsibility. The aim of this paper is to apply ABC and TOC to analyze green product mix decision-making for joint products using a mathematical programming model and the joint production data of pharmaceutical industry companies for the processing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in drugs for medical use. This paper illustrates that the time-driven ABC model leads to optimal joint product mix decisions and performs sensitivity analysis to study how the optimal solution will change with the carbon tax. Our findings provide insight into 'sustainability decisions' and are beneficial in terms of environmental management in a competitive pharmaceutical industry.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1232
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2016


  • Carbon tax
  • Joint product mix
  • Mathematical programming
  • Sustainability decision-making
  • Theory of constraints (TOC)
  • Time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC)


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