Studying the effect of redundancy in a virtual reality classroom

Tzu Chien Liu, Yi Chun Lin, Tzu Ning Wang, Shih Ching Yeh, Slava Kalyuga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Redundancy effect has been investigated in many controlled experimental studies, however, it is seldom investigated whether the same redundant material may cause different results in classroom, which is a major learning place for students. Considering that it is not easy to control the internal validity in classroom environment, this study proposed a new research approach with the use of virtual reality (VR) classroom as the experimental platform to investigate this issue. In the current study, one hundred and four fifth-grade students were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions with two different presentation formats (redundant and non-redundant) and two learning environments (lab and VR classroom). The retention test scores, cognitive load, and performance efficiency were used as dependent variables. The results revealed that the redundancy effect occurred in the lab environment and the reverse redundancy effect occurred in the VR classroom environment. In the lab environment, participants who had learned with non-redundant materials demonstrated better learning performance than those who had learned with redundant materials. On the contrary, the results were reversed in the VR classroom environment. The programmed interferences in the VR classroom are suggested as the main factor influencing the results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1183-1200
Number of pages18
JournalEducational Technology Research and Development
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • Cognitive load theory
  • Multimedia
  • Redundancy effect
  • VR classroom


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