Spectroscopic and Electrical Characterizations of Low-Damage Phosphorous-Doped Graphene via Ion Implantation

Shih Ming He, Cheng Chun Huang, Jhe Wei Liou, Wei Yen Woon, Ching Yuan Su

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Development of n-/p-type semiconducting graphenes is a critical route to implement in graphene-based nanoelectronics and optronics. Compared to the p-type graphene, the n-type graphene is more difficult to be prepared. Recently, phosphorous doping was reported to achieve air-stable and high mobility of n-typed graphene. The phosphorous-doped graphene (P-Gra) by ion implantation is considered as an ideal method for tailoring graphene due to its IC compatible process; however, for a conventional ion implanter, the acceleration energy is in the order of kiloelectron volts (keV), thus severely destroys the sp2 bonding of graphene owing to its high energy of accelerated ions. The introduced defects, therefore, degrade the electrical performance of graphene. Here, for the first time, we report a low-damage n-typed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene by an industrial-compatible ion implanter with an energy of 20 keV where the designed protection layer (thin Au film) covered on as-grown CVD graphene is employed to efficiently reduce defect formation. The additional post-annealing is found to heal the crystal defects of graphene. Moreover, this method allows transferring ultraclean and residue-free P-Gra onto versatile target substrates directly. The doping configuration, crystallinity, and electrical properties on P-Gra were comprehensively studied. The results indicate that the low-damaged P-Gra with a controllable doping concentration of up to 4.22 at % was achieved, which is the highest concentration ever recorded. The doped graphenes with tunable work functions (4.85-4.15 eV) and stable n-type doping while keeping high-carrier mobility are realized. This work contributes to the proof-of-concept for tailoring graphene or 2D materials through doping with an exceptional low defect density by the low energy ion implantation, suggesting a great potential for unconventional doping technologies for next-generation 2D-based nanoelectronics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)47289-47298
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number50
StatePublished - 18 Dec 2019


  • 2D materials
  • chemical vapor deposition
  • graphene
  • ion implantation
  • phosphorous doping


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