In situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) combined with linear sweep voltammetry was used to examine spatial structures of sulfur adatoms (SA) and benzenethiol (BT) molecules adsorbed on an ordered Ru(0001) electrode in 0.1 M HClO4. The Ru(0001) surface, prepared by mechanical polishing and electrochemical reduction at -1.5 V (vs RHE) in 0.1 M HClO4, contained atomically flat terraces with an average width of 20 nm. Cyclic voltammograms obtained with an as-prepared Ru(0001) electrode in 0.1 M HClO 4 showed characteristics nearly identical to those of Ru(0001) treated in high vacuum. High-quality STM images were obtained for SA and BT to determine their spatial structures as a function of potential. The structure of the SA adlayer changed from (2 × √3)rect to domain walls to (√7 × √7)R19.1° and then to disordered as the potential was scanned from 0.3 to 0.6 V. In contrast, molecules of BT were arranged in (2 × √3)rect between 0.1 and 0.4V, while they were disordered at all other potentials. Adsorption of BT molecules was predominantly through the sulfur headgroup. Sulfur adatoms and adsorbed BT molecules were stable against anodic polarization up to 1.0 V (vs RHE). These two species were adsorbed so strongly that their desorption did not occur even at the onset potential for the reduction of water in 0.1 M KOH.