Round Granules of Dimethyl Fumarate by Three-in-One Intensified Process of Reaction, Crystallization, and Spherical Agglomeration in a Common Stirred Tank

Chih Wei Chen, Tu Lee

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8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Pure, isomorphic, round, and free-flowing dimethyl fumarate granules in a size range of 250-2000 μm were successfully produced directly from esterification through the three-in-one intensified process of three distinctive steps of reaction, crystallization, and spherical agglomeration (SA) in a 0.5 L sized jacketed glass stirred tank. Dimethyl fumarate was prepared by sulfuric acid catalyzed esterification of fumaric acid with methanol. The reaction temperature was below the maximum allowable limit of 65 °C as determined by reaction kinetics to avoid the runaway situation. The dissolution rate of primary crystals of dimethyl fumarate was inversely proportional to the particle size which was strongly affected by the antisolvent addition and temperature cooling schemes during crystallization. However, the dissolution rate of the round granules was mainly dependent on the exterior dimension of the granules and not so much on the primary crystal size inside the granules. The mechanical properties such as density, porosity Carr's index, friability, and fracture force of round dimethyl fumarate granules generated in (1) three-in-one processes with the final temperatures at either 5 or 25 °C (Three-in-one I and II) and (2) SA of dimethyl fumarate, which was done separately and disconnected from the train of reaction and crystallization process at either 5 or 25 °C (SA I and II), were thoroughly studied and compared. The concept of scale-up for Three-in-one I and II was also verified in a 10 L sized jacketed glass stirred tank. Powder manufacturability such as flowability, blend uniformity, and compressibility had been substantially enhanced by spherical agglomeration. The added values of free-flowing and easy-to-pack properties to dimethyl fumarate in addition to its original intrinsic slip planes in the crystal lattice would make direct compaction into tablets feasible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1326-1339
Number of pages14
JournalOrganic Process Research and Development
Volume21
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2017

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