Role of the anion in the underpotential deposition of cadmium on a Rh(111) electrode: Probed by voltammetry and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy

Liang Yueh Ou Yang, Fahd Bensliman, Chia Haw Shue, Yaw Chia Yang, Ze Haw Zang, Li Wang, Shueh Lin Yau, Soichiro Yoshimoto, Kingo Itaya

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9 Scopus citations

Abstract

In situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were employed to examine the underpotential deposition (UPD) of cadmium on a rhodium(111) electrode in sulfuric and hydrochloric acids. The (bi)sulfate and chloride anions in the electrolytes played a main role in controlling the number and arrangement of Cd adatoms. Deposition of Cd along with hydrogen adsorption occurred near 0.1 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode) in either 0.05 M H 2SO4 or 0. 1 M HCl containing 1 mM Cd(ClO 4)2. These coupled processes resulted in an erroneous coverage of Cd adatoms. The process of Cd deposition shifted positively to 0.3 V and thus separated from that of hydrogen in 0.05 H2SO4 containing 0.5 M Cd2+. The amount of charge (80 μC/cm2) for Cd deposition in 0.5 M Cd2+ implied a coverage of 0.17 for the Cd adatoms, which agreed with in situ STM results. Regardless of [Cd 2+], in situ STM imaging revealed a highly ordered Rh(111)-(6 × 6)-6Cd + HSO4- or SO42-structure in sulfuric acid,. In hydrochloric acid, in situ STM discerned a (2 × 2)-Cd + Cl structure at potentials where Cd deposition commenced. STM atomic resolution showed roughly one-quarter of a monolayer of Cd adatoms were deposited, ca. 50% more than in sulfuric acid. Dynamic in situ STM imaging showed potential dependent, reversible transformations between the (6 × 6) Cd adlattices and (√3 × √7)-(bi)sulfate structure, and between (2 × 2) and (√7 × √7)R19.1°-C1 structures. The fact that different Cd structures observed in H2SO4 and HCl entailed the involvement of anions in Cd deposition, i.e. (bi)sulfate and chloride anions were codeposited with Cd adatoms on Rh(111).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14917-14924
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry B
Volume109
Issue number31
DOIs
StatePublished - 11 Aug 2005

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