Reverse fault slip through soft rock and sand strata by centrifuge modeling tests

Wen Yi Hung, Dicky Pratama Soegianto, Yi Hsiu Wang, Jun Xue Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The devastating damage after the 1999 Chi-Chi and 1999 Izmit earthquakes has greatly motivated soil–reverse fault interaction studies. However, most centrifuge modeling studies have employed a single homogeneous soil layer during testing, which does not represent in situ conditions. Indeed, while geological conditions vary spatially, engineering soils are often underlain by soft rocks. Therefore, four centrifuge models were developed to evaluate the effect of soft rock layers on the ground surface and subsurface deformation. Sand–cement mixtures of varying thicknesses with a uniaxial compressive strength of 0.975 MPa, simulating extremely soft rock, were overlain by pluviated sandy soil. The model thickness was 100 mm, corresponding to 8 m in the prototype scale when spun at 80 g. Every model was subjected to a vertical offset of 50 mm/4 m (0.5 H; H: total sedimentary deposit thickness) along a reverse fault with a 60° dip. The results indicate that the presence of a soft rock stratum results in the creation of a horst profile at the ground surface. Additionally, the thinner the soil layer on top of the soft rock stratum is, the longer and higher the horst created at the ground surface. Consequently, the fault deformation zone lengthens proportionally with the increasing thickness ratio of the soft rock. Furthermore, the presence of soft rock as an intermediary stratum between bedrock and soil causes the deformation zone boundary on the hanging wall side to move in the direction of fault movement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3337-3356
Number of pages20
JournalActa Geotechnica
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • Centrifuge modeling
  • Deformation zone length
  • Ground surface evolution
  • Multiple soil strata
  • Reverse fault
  • Soft rock base


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