After almost thirty years’ efforts on studying transient luminous events (TLEs), ground-based observation has confirmed the TLE family, including elves, halos, sprites, and blue jets, etc. The typical elve has the shortest emission time (<1 ms) in comparison with other TLEs. The second shortest is the halo emission. Although elves and halos are supposed to be more frequent than sprites, ground campaigns still have less probability of recording their images due to their fleeting and short emission. Additionally, the submillisecond imaging of elves, halos, and sprite halos helps us resolve their electro-optic dynamics and morphological features, but few have been reported in the literature. Our study presents the 10,000 fps imaging frames on elves, halos and sprite halos, compares their similarity and disparity, and analyzes their parent lightning properties with associated VLF and ELF data.
- Transient luminous events