Resolving elve, halo and sprite halo images at 10,000 fps in the taiwan 2020 campaign

Cheng Ling Kuo, Tai Yin Huang, Cheng Mao Hsu, Mitsuteru Sato, Lou Chuang Lee, Neng Huei Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


After almost thirty years’ efforts on studying transient luminous events (TLEs), ground-based observation has confirmed the TLE family, including elves, halos, sprites, and blue jets, etc. The typical elve has the shortest emission time (<1 ms) in comparison with other TLEs. The second shortest is the halo emission. Although elves and halos are supposed to be more frequent than sprites, ground campaigns still have less probability of recording their images due to their fleeting and short emission. Additionally, the submillisecond imaging of elves, halos, and sprite halos helps us resolve their electro-optic dynamics and morphological features, but few have been reported in the literature. Our study presents the 10,000 fps imaging frames on elves, halos and sprite halos, compares their similarity and disparity, and analyzes their parent lightning properties with associated VLF and ELF data.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1000
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Elves
  • Halos
  • Sprites
  • Transient luminous events


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