Reliability Challenges of Nanoscale Avalanche Photodiodes for High-Speed Fiber-Optic Communications

Jack Jia Sheng Huang, Yu Heng Jan, H. S. Chang, C. J. Ni, Emin Chou, S. K. Lee, H. S. Chen, Jin Wei Shi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Photodetectors in optical systems work in a similar manner like human eyes. Optical detectors can detect signals from light sources and provide feedback to the networks. Modern nanoscale semiconductor photodetectors are indispensable components for various high-speed optical networks in the applications of datacenter, wireless, fiber-to-the-premises, and telecommunication. In this chapter, we focus on the state-of-the-art 2.5G, 10G, and 25G avalanche photodiodes and compare the feature size in each generation. We present brief overview of the key device performance of avalanche photodiodes including avalanche breakdown voltage, dark current, temperature stability, bandwidth, and sensitivity. We also discuss reliability implications associated with device miniaturization. During device shrinking, increasingly high electric field is likely to impose most reliability risk. We discuss the reliability challenges of nanoscale photodetectors in terms of optical/electrical overload stress, wear-out degradation, and electrostatic discharge.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringer Series in Optical Sciences
Number of pages25
StatePublished - 2019

Publication series

NameSpringer Series in Optical Sciences
ISSN (Print)0342-4111
ISSN (Electronic)1556-1534


  • Avalanche photodiodes
  • Device miniaturization
  • III-V photodetectors
  • InGaAs/InAlAs APD
  • Nanophotonics
  • Photodetectors
  • Reliability
  • Semiconductor photodetectors
  • Temperature dependence


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