Reference metadata extraction using a hierarchical knowledge representation framework

Min Yuh Day, Richard Tzong Han Tsai, Cheng Lung Sung, Chiu Chen Hsieh, Cheng Wei Lee, Shih Hung Wu, Kun Pin Wu, Chorng Shyong Ong, Wen Lian Hsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


The integration of bibliographical information on scholarly publications available on the Internet is an important task in the academic community. Accurate reference metadata extraction from such publications is essential for the integration of metadata from heterogeneous reference sources. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical template-based reference metadata extraction method for scholarly publications. We adopt a hierarchical knowledge representation framework called INFOMAP, which automatically extracts metadata. The experimental results show that, by using INFOMAP, we can extract author, title, journal, volume, number (issue), year, and page information from different kinds of reference styles with a high degree of precision. The overall average accuracy is 92.39% for the six major reference styles compared in this study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-167
Number of pages16
JournalDecision Support Systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2007


  • Knowledge representation framework
  • Metadata extraction
  • Reference extraction


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