Recent Advances and Synergistic Effects of Non-Precious Carbon-Based Nanomaterials as ORR Electrocatalysts: A Review

Laksamee Payattikul, Chen Yu Chen, Yong Song Chen, Mariyappan Raja Pugalenthi, Konlayutt Punyawudho

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The use of platinum-free (Pt) cathode electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) has been significantly studied over the past decade, improving slow reaction mechanisms. For many significant energy conversion and storage technologies, including fuel cells and metal–air batteries, the ORR is a crucial process. These have motivated the development of highly active and long-lasting platinum-free electrocatalysts, which cost less than proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Researchers have identified a novel, non-precious carbon-based electrocatalyst material as the most effective substitute for platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts. Rich sources, outstanding electrical conductivity, adaptable molecular structures, and environmental compatibility are just a few of its benefits. Additionally, the increased surface area and the simplicity of regulating its structure can significantly improve the electrocatalyst’s reactive sites and mass transport. Other benefits include the use of heteroatoms and single or multiple metal atoms, which are capable of acting as extremely effective ORR electrocatalysts. The rapid innovations in non-precious carbon-based nanomaterials in the ORR electrocatalyst field are the main topics of this review. As a result, this review provides an overview of the basic ORR reaction and the mechanism of the active sites in non-precious carbon-based electrocatalysts. Further analysis of the development, performance, and evaluation of these systems is provided in more detail. Furthermore, the significance of doping is highlighted and discussed, which shows how researchers can enhance the properties of electrocatalysts. Finally, this review discusses the existing challenges and expectations for the development of highly efficient and inexpensive electrocatalysts that are linked to crucial technologies in this expanding field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7751
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • carbon electrocatalyst
  • energy storage
  • heteroatoms
  • metal–organic framework
  • oxygen reduction reaction
  • single-atom metals


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