A zinc-based metal organic framework, Zn-MOF-74, which has a unique one-dimensional (1D) channel and nanoscale aperture size, was rapidly obtained in 10 min using a de novo mild water-based system at room temperature, which is an example of green and sustainable chemistry. First, catalase (CAT) enzyme was encapsulated into Zn-MOF-74 (denoted as CAT@Zn-MOF-74), and comparative assays of biocatalysis, size-selective protection, and framework-confined effects were investigated. Electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction were used for characterization, while electrophoresis and confocal microscopy confirmed the immobilization of CAT molecules inside the single hexagonal MOF crystals at loading of ∼15 wt %. Furthermore, the CAT@Zn-MOF-74 hybrid was exposed to a denaturing reagent (urea) and proteolytic conditions (proteinase K) to evaluate its efficacy. The encapsulated CAT maintained its catalytic activity in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), even when exposed to 0.05 M urea and proteinase K, yielding an apparent observed rate constant (kobs) of 6.0 × 10-2 and 6.6 × 10-2 s-1, respectively. In contrast, free CAT exhibited sharply decreased activity under these conditions. Additionally, the bioactivity of CAT@Zn-MOF-74 for H2O2 decomposition was over three times better than that of the biocomposites based on zeolitic imidazolate framework 90 (ZIF-90) owing to the nanometer-scaled apertures, 1D channel, and less confinement effects in Zn-MOF-74 crystallites. To demonstrate the general applicability of this strategy, another enzyme, α-chymotrypsin (CHT), was also encapsulated in Zn-MOF-74 (denoted as CHT@Zn-MOF-74) for action against a substrate larger than H2O2. In particular, CHT@Zn-MOF-74 demonstrated a biological function in the hydrolysis of l-phenylalanine p-nitroanilide (HPNA), the activity of ZIF-90-encapsulated CHT was undetectable due to aperture size limitations. Thus, we not only present a rapid eco-friendly approach for Zn-MOF-74 synthesis but also demonstrate the broader feasibility of enzyme encapsulation in MOFs, which may help to meet the increasing demand for their industrial applications.
- enzyme immobilization
- metal-organic frameworks