Quinoxaline-Based X-Shaped Sensitizers as Self-Assembled Monolayer for Tin Perovskite Solar cells

Shakil N. Afraj, Chun Hsiao Kuan, Jian Sing Lin, Jen Shyang Ni, Arulmozhi Velusamy, Ming Chou Chen, Eric Wei Guang Diau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Four X-shaped quinoxaline-based organic dyes, PQx (1), TQx, (2), PQxD (3), and TQxD (4) (D = dye sensitizers) are developed and served as p-type self-assemble monolayer (SAM) for tin perovskite solar cells (TPSC). Thermal, optical, and electrochemical properties of these SAMs are thoroughly investigated and characterized. Tin perovskite layers are successfully deposited on these four SAM surfaces according to a two-step approach and the devices exhibit power conversion efficiency in the order of TQxD (8.3%) > TQx (8.0%) > PQxD (7.1%) > PQx (6.1%). With thiophene π-extended conjugation unit in SAM structure, TQxD (4) exhibits the highest hole extraction rates, greatest hole mobilities, and slowest charge recombination to achieve great device performance of 8.3%, which is the current best result for SAM-based TPSC ever reported. Furthermore, all devices except PQx shows great enduring stability for the performance retaining ≈90% of their original values for shelf storage over 1600 h.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2213939
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number17
StatePublished - 25 Apr 2023


  • quinoxaline
  • self-assembled monolayers
  • tin perovskite solar cells


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