Pseudotensors and quasilocal energy-momentum

Chia Chen Chang, James M. Nester, Chiang Mei Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

182 Scopus citations


Early energy-momentum investigations for gravitating systems gave reference-frame-dependent pseudotensors; later the quasilocal idea was developed. Quasilocal energy-momentum can be determined by the Hamiltonian boundary term, which also identifies the variables to be held fixed on the boundary. We show that a pseudotensor corresponds to a Hamiltonian boundary term. Hence, they are quasilocal and acceptable; each is the energy-momentum density for a definite physical situation with certain boundary conditions. These conditions are identified for well-known pseudotensors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1897-1901
Number of pages5
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1999


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