Probing penile hemodynamics by using photoplethysmography as objective indicators for male erection quality and sexual function

Yuan Hung Pong, Yi Kai Chang, Ching En Hsu, Po Cheng Chen, Yu Chuan Lu, Vincent F.S. Tsai, Hong Chiang Chang, Men Tzung Lo, Chen Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is mostly due to the lack of blood flow into the penis. In the past 20 years, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used in measuring the concentrations and temporal dynamics of different hemoglobin types. However, the dynamics of the light absorption (photoplethysmography; PPG) have not been applied to survey penile hemodynamics and erection quality. This paper compared the use of photoplethysmography (PPG) to study vascular ED with standard penile Doppler ultrasonography. Men diagnosed with vascular ED for at least 6 months and nominated for penile ultrasonography were included. PPG signals were collected during the ultrasound examination. All beat-to-beat PPG waveforms were aligned with the peak and averaged to one representative template waveform for feature analysis, including amplitude differences (APD) index, reflection time index (RTI), augmentation index (AI), and perfusion index (PI). An inverse correlation was found between end-erection amplitude and both erection hardness score (EHS) and resistive index (RI). APD index and EHS as well as the international index of erectile function-5 (IIEF) and RI were positively correlated. RTI and AI were inversely correlated to IIEF and RI. PI was positively correlated to RI. PPG may therefore be useful as a noninvasive, convenient, technique for sexual function evaluation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12019
JournalScientific Reports
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

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