Predicting hardness of four groundwater monitoring stations in kaohsiung city of taiwan using seven types of GM (1, 1) model

Tzu Yi Pai, Ray Shyan Wu, Ching Ho Chen, Li Chen, Ching Yuan Lin, Hsin Yi Lee, Li Hua Shih, Yu Ze Jiang, Ching Yin Shen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this study, seven types of first-order and one-variable grey differential equation model (abbreviated as GM (1, 1) model) were used to predict the hardness of four groundwater monitoring stations in Kaohsiung City of Taiwan. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was used to evaluate the predicting performance. The results indicated the minimum MAPE of 4.71%, 3.15%, 2.66%, and 16.63% could be achieved when predicting hardness of Fonsi, Datung, Shaukang, and Chihsien stations, respectively. According to the results, it revealed that GM (1, 1) was an efficiently early warning tool for providing groundwater quality information to the competent authority.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Applied Materials and Electronics Engineering III
PublisherTrans Tech Publications
Pages314-317
Number of pages4
ISBN (Print)9783038350583
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014
Event3rd International Conference on Applied Materials and Electronics Engineering, AMEE 2014 - Hong Kong, China
Duration: 26 Apr 201427 Apr 2014

Publication series

NameAdvanced Materials Research
Volume905
ISSN (Print)1022-6680

Conference

Conference3rd International Conference on Applied Materials and Electronics Engineering, AMEE 2014
Country/TerritoryChina
CityHong Kong
Period26/04/1427/04/14

Keywords

  • GM (1,1)
  • Grey model
  • Grey system theory
  • Groundwater quality
  • Hardness

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