Physicochemical and biological analysis of river Yamuna at Palla station from 2009 to 2019

Pankaj Joshi, Akshansha Chauhan, Piyush Dua, Sudheer Malik, Yuei An Liou

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Yamuna is one of the main tributaries of the river Ganga and passes through Delhi, the national capital of India. In the last few years, it is considered one of the most polluted rivers of India. We carried out the analysis for the physiochemical and biological conditions of the river Yamuna based on measurements acquired at Palla station, Delhi during 2009–19. For our analysis, we considered various physicochemical and biological parameters (Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Saturation, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and Total Coliform. The water stats of river Yamuna at Palla station were matched with Water Standards of India, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), and World Health Organization (WHO). Maximum changes are observed in DO saturation and total coliform, while BOD and COD values are also seen higher than the upper limits. Total alkalinity rarely meets the minimum standards. TDS is found to be satisfactory as per the standard limit. The river quality falls under Class D or E (IS2296), Class III or IV (UNECE), and fails to fulfill WHO standards for water. After spending more than 130 million USD for the establishment of a large number of effluent treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, and common effluent treatment plants, increasing discharges of untreated sewage, partially treated industrial effluents and reduced discharge of freshwater from Hathnikund are causing deterioration in water quality and no major improvements are seen in water quality of river Yamuna.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2870
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


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