Catalytic destruction has been applied to control polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) emissions from different facilities. The cost of carbon-based catalysts is considerably lower than that of the metal oxide or zeolite-based catalysts used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. In this study, destruction and adsorption efficiencies of PCDD/Fs achieved with Cu/C and Fe/C catalysts from flue gas streams of a metal smelting plant (MSP) and a large-scale municipal waste incinerator (MWI), respectively, are evaluated via the pilot-scale catalytic reactor system (PCRS). The results indicate that Cu and Fe catalysts supported on carbon surface are capable of decomposing and adsorbing PCDD/Fs from gas streams. In the testing sources of MSP and MWI, the PCDD/F removal efficiencies achieved with Cu/C catalyst at 250°C reach 96%, however, the destruction efficiencies are negative (-1,390% and -112%, respectively) due to significant PCDD/F formation on catalyst promoted by copper. In addition, Fe/C catalyst is of higher removal and destruction efficiencies compared with Cu/C catalyst in both testing sources. The removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs achieved with Fe/C catalyst are 97 and 94% for MSP and MWI, respectively, whereas the destruction efficiencies are both higher than 70%. Decrease of PCDD/F destruction efficiency and increase of adsorption efficiency with increasing chlorination of dioxin congeners is also observed in the testvia three-layer Fe/C catalyst. Furthermore, the mass of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs retained on catalyst decreases on the order of first to third layer of catalyst. Each gram Fe/C catalyst in first layer adsorbs 10.9, 6.91, and 3.04 ng 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in 100 min testing duration as the operating temperature is controlled at 150, 200, and 250°C, respectively.