The single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal display (TR-LCD) based on periodic distribution of surface anchoring energy (SAE) of periodical nano-grooved structures is reported in this study. Different SAEs of planar-aligned nematic LC cells are associated with the threshold and operation voltages of the adopted LCs. Thus, according to the transmittance versus applied voltage curves, the regions with strong and weak SAEs in LC cells can be the transmission and reflection regions of a TR-LCD, respectively. According to the simulation results using 1D-DIMOS software, the phase retardation of a strong SAE region is approximately twice as large as that of a weak SAE region when a specific voltage is applied, and a suitable difference in SAE exists between these two regions. Moreover, various SAEs based on periodical nano-grooved structures can be fabricated to demonstrate the TR-LCD.