Optical Simulation Design of a Short Lens Length with a Curved Image Plane and Relative Illumination Analysis

Wen Shing Sun, Chuen Lin Tien, Yi Hong Liu, Guan Er Huang, Ying Shun Hsu, Yi Lun Su

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study proposes a three-lens design with a short lens length and explores the curved imaging plane and performs a relative illumination analysis. There are two ways to reduce the lens length: shortening the back focal and lens group lengths. We derived the relevant parameter relationships of three lenses using the first-order geometric optics theory. The optical lens length can be controlled within 2 mm. The shorter the lens length, the larger the angle of the chief ray in the image space, resulting in an increase in the field curvature and astigmatism. Third-order Seidel aberrations can be effectively reduced by a curved image plane. We also derived the equations for relative illuminance, solid angle, surface transmittance, and internal transmittance for the short three-lens design. The optical lens design uses a curved image plane to shorten the distance from the off-axis beam image space to the image plane and reduce the incident angle of the chief ray on the image plane. The formula and design results verified by Code V software (version 11.2) show that both the solid angle and relative contrast of the lens can be increased. For the proposed three-lens design with a short lens length, the semi-field angle is 32°, F/# is 2.7, the effective focal length is 1.984 mm, the image plane area is 2.16 mm × 1.22 mm, and the curvature radius of the concave image plane is 3.726 mm. Moroever, the MTF (100 lp/mm) is larger than 52%, the lateral color aberration is less than 2.12 μm, the optical distortion is less than 2.00%, and the relative illumination is greater than 68%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number64
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024


  • Code V software
  • curved image plane
  • optical design
  • relative illumination
  • Seidel aberration


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