Resistin is known as an adipocyte-specific secretory hormone that can cause insulin resistance and decrease adipocyte differentiation. It can be regulated by sexual hormones. Whether environmental estrogens regulate the production of resistin is still not clear. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we found that octylphenol upregulated resistin mRNA expression in dose- and time-dependent manners. The concentration of octylphenol that increased resistin mRNA levels by 50% was ∼100 nM within 6 h of treatment. The basal half-life of resistin mRNA induced by actinomycin D was lengthened by octylphenol treatment, suggesting that octylphenol decreases the rate of resistin mRNA degradation. In addition, octylphenol stimulated resistin protein expression and release. The basal half-life of resistin protein induced by cycloheximide was lengthened by octylphenol treatment, suggesting that octylphenol decreases the rate of resistin protein degradation. While octylphenol was shown to increase activities of the estrogen receptor (ER) and MEK1, signaling was demonstrated to be blocked by pretreatment with either ICI-182780 (an ERα antagonist) or U-0126 (a MEK1 inhibitor), in which both inhibitors prevented octylphenol-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. These results imply that ERα and ERK are necessary for the octylphenol stimulation of resistin mRNA expression. Moreover, U-0126 antagonized the octylphenol-increased resistin protein expression and release. These data suggest that the way octylphenol signaling increases resistin protein levels is similar to that by which it increases resistin mRNA levels; it is likely mediated through an ERK-dependent pathway. In vivo, octylphenol increased adipose resistin mRNA expression and serum resistin and glucose levels, supporting its in vitro effect.
- Bisphenol A
- Environmental hormone