Negative association between serum parathyroid hormone levels and urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentrations in U.S. adults: The national health and nutrition examination survey 2005-2006

Wen Ching Ko, Chien Liang Liu, Jie Jen Lee, Tsang Pai Liu, Po Sheng Yang, Yi Chiung Hsu, Shih Ping Cheng

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12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are well-known inhibitors of the sodium-iodide symporter and may disrupt thyroid function. This exploratory study investigated the association among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentrations and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the general U.S. population. Methods: We analyzed data on 4265 adults (aged 20 years and older) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005 through 2006 to evaluate the relationship among urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate concentration and PTH levels and the presence of hyperparathyroidism cross-sectionally. Results: The geometric means and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) concentrations of urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were 3.38 (3.15-3.62), 40363 (37512-43431), and 1129 (1029-1239) ng/mL, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables and sample weights, creatinine-corrected urinary perchlorate was negatively associated with serum PTH levels in women (P=0.001), and creatinine-corrected urinary nitrate and thiocyanate were negatively associated with serum PTH levels in both sex groups (P=0.001 and P<0.001 for men, P=0.018 and P<0.001 for women, respectively). Similar results were obtained from sensitivity analyses performed for exposure variables unadjusted for creatinine with urinary creatinine added as a separate covariate. There was a negative relationship between hyperparathyroidism and urinary nitrate and thiocyanate [odds ratio (95% CI)=0.77 (0.60-0.98) and 0.69 (0.61-0.79), respectively]. Conclusions: A higher urinary concentration of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate is associated with lower serum PTH levels. Future studies are needed to determine the pathophysiological background of the observation.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere115245
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume9
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 16 Dec 2014

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