Nanoarchitectonics of Biofunctionalized Metal–Organic Frameworks with Biological Macromolecules and Living Cells

Saikat Dutta, Jeonghun Kim, Pin Hsun Hsieh, Yu Shen Hsu, Yusuf Valentino Kaneti, Fa Kuen Shieh, Yusuke Yamauchi, Kevin C.W. Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


The formation of biofunctionalized metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) by growing them on a variety of macromolecular biological species, particularly on enzymes and living cells, offers exciting opportunities for a wide range of applications, including biocatalysis, biosensing, and diagnoses. MOFs are commonly subjected to biofunctionalization and biomimetic mineralization, owing to their good chemical and thermal stabilities and easy preparation in aqueous medium under ambient conditions. The functionalization of MOFs with biological substances, such as enzymes, nonenzymatic proteins, and living cells promotes the formation of MOF-based biocomposites which retain the biological functions of the embedded biological substances. The most common method to construct these biofunctionalized MOFs is either by directly growing the MOF on the biological moiety or by postsynthetic modification of the exterior surface of the MOF with the desired biological species. In particular, hierarchically porous MOFs (containing both mesopores and micropores) are ideal candidates for hosting enzymes and for the translocation of nonenzymatic proteins. This review covers various advanced strategies for developing MOF-based biocomposites for a wide range of bioapplications, such as biomedical storage, tumor cell targeting, and drug delivery. The influence of MOFs on the biological activity of living cells and future prospects for developing novel MOF-based biorefinery are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1900213
JournalSmall Methods
Issue number11
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2019


  • biofunctionalization
  • enzymes
  • living cells
  • metal–organic frameworks
  • nonenzymatic proteins


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