Morphological study of the field-aligned E-layer irregularities observed by the Gadanki VHF radar

C. J. Pan, P. B. Rao

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We report on the field-aligned irregularities observed in the low-latitude sporadic E-layer (Es) with the Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E; geomagnetic latitude 6.3°N) VHF radar. The radar was operated intermittently for 15 days during the summer months in 1998 and 1999, for both daytime and nighttime observation. The total observation periods are 161 h for the nighttime and 68 h for the daytime. The observations were used to study the percentage of occurrence of the E-region echoes for both daytime and nighttime. The statistical characteristics of the mean radial velocity and spectral width are presented for three cases based on the echo occurrence characteristics and the altitude of observations (from 90 to 140 km ranges), namely, the lower E-region daytime (90-110 km), the lower E-region nighttime (90-105 km) and the upper E-region nighttime (105-140 km) echoes. The results are compared with that of Piura, a low-latitude station located at about the same geomagnetic latitude, but to the south of the equator. By comparing the behaviors of the lower E-region radar echoes of the summer months between Gadanki and Piura, we find that the lower altitude echoes below about 100 km are rarely reported in Piura but commonly seen in Gadanki. Features of the nighttime echoes observed by these two radars are quite similar but daytime FAI echoes are again seldom detected by Piura.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3799-3804
Number of pages6
JournalAnnales Geophysicae
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2004


  • Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities)
  • Radio science (remote sensing, ionospheric physics, instruments and techniques)


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