The Asian–Australian Monsoon (AAM), the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) have been known to induce variability in ocean surface characteristics along the southern coast of Lesser Sunda Island (LSI). However, previous studies used low spatial resolution data and little Ekman dynamics analysis. This study aims to investigate the direct influence of AAM winds on ocean surface conditions and to determine how ENSO and IOD affect the ocean surface and depth with higher spatial resolution data. In addition, the variability in Ekman dynamics is also described along with the inconsistent relationship between wind and sea surface temperature (SST) in four different areas. The results indicate that persistent southeasterly winds are likely to induce low SST and chlorophyll-a blooms. Based on the interannual variability, the positive chlorophyll-a (up to 0.5 mg m−3 ) and negative SST (reaching −1.5◦C) anomalies observed in the El Nino of 2015 coincide with +IOD, which also corroborates positive wind stress and Ekman Mass Transport (EMT) anomalies. In contrast, the La Nina of 2010 coincides with-IOD, and positive SST and negative chlorophyll-a anomalies (more than 1.5◦ C and −0.5 mg m−3 respectively) were observed. Furthermore, we found that southern coast of Java and Bali Island have a different generated mechanism that controls SST variability.
- Ekman dynamics