Balanoposthitis is a common inflammatory condition of male genitalia, while the overall microbiota spectrum and its relevance to contributing factors have yet to be determined. This case-control study included patients with balanoposthitis (n = 26) and matched healthy controls (n = 29), both uncircumcised. Overt fungal in-fection in balanoposthitis was excluded, swab samp-les were collected, 16S rRNA gene sequenced and analysed. The profile of the microbiome was further analysed in relation to the clinical severity of the disease and the physical barrier status of the glans penis, including mucosa pH, transepidermal water loss, and mucosa hydration. In general, the micro-biota composition was similar between patients with balanoposthitis and healthy controls, while it was different between patients with balanoposthitis and healthy controls with redundant prepuce. Decreased hydration of the mucosa and increased pH were found in patients with balanoposthitis. Staphylococcus war-neri and Prevotella bivia are the 2 most abundant balanoposthitis-associated species and are positively correlated with disease severity.
- Male genital mucosa physical barrier
- Redundant prepuce