Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by Super Typhoon Nepartak (2016)

Min Yang Chou, Charles C.H. Lin, Jia Yue, Loren C. Chang, Ho Fang Tsai, Chia Hung Chen

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49 Scopus citations


Two remarkable typhoon-induced traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) with concentric and northwest-southeast (NW-SE) alignments, respectively, associated with concentric gravity waves (CGWs) and ionosphere instabilities possibly seeded by CGWs, were observed in total electron content (TEC) derived from ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System networks in Taiwan and Japan when the Category 5 Super Typhoon Nepartak approached Taiwan on 7 July 2016. The concentric TIDs (CTIDs) first appear with horizontal phase velocities of ~161–200 m/s, horizontal wavelengths of ~160–270 km, and periods of ~15–22 min during 08:00–11:20 UT. Following the CTIDs, the NW-SE aligned nighttime medium-scale TIDs (MSTIDs) are formed on the west edge of the CTIDs over the Taiwan Strait during 11:30–14:00 UT. It is suggested that the MSTIDs are produced by the electrodynamical coupling of Perkins instability and CGW-induced polarization electric fields. This study proposes connections of typhoon-induced CTIDs and subsequently occurring MSTIDs in the low-latitude ionosphere.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7569-7577
Number of pages9
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Issue number15
StatePublished - 16 Aug 2017


  • MSTIDs
  • gravity wave
  • ionosphere
  • typhoon


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