Mangroves are grown in intertidal zones along tropical and subtropical climate areas, which have many benefits for humans and ecosystems. The knowledge of mangrove conditions is essential to know the statuses of mangroves. Recently, satellite imagery has been widely used to generate mangrove and degradation mapping. Sentinel-2 is a volume of free satellite image data that has a temporal resolution of 5 days. When Hurricane Irma hit the southwest Florida coastal zone in 2017, it caused mangrove degradation. The relationship of satellite images between pre and post-hurricane events can provide a deeper understanding of the degraded mangrove areas that were affected by Hurricane Irma. This study proposed an MDPrePost-Net that considers images before and after hurricanes to classify non-mangrove, intact/healthy mangroves, and degraded mangroves classes affected by Hurricane Irma in southwest Florida using Sentinel-2 data. MDPrePost-Net is an end-to-end fully convolutional network (FCN) that consists of two main sub-models. The first sub-model is a pre-post deep feature extractor used to extract the spatial–spectral–temporal relationship between the pre, post, and mangrove conditions after the hurricane from the satellite images and the second sub-model is an FCN classifier as the classification part from extracted spatial– spectral–temporal deep features. Experimental results show that the accuracy and Intersection over Union (IoU) score by the proposed MDPrePost-Net for degraded mangrove are 98.25% and 96.82%, respectively. Based on the experimental results, MDPrePost-Net outperforms the state-of-the-art FCN models (e.g., U-Net, LinkNet, FPN, and FC-DenseNet) in terms of accuracy metrics. In addition, this study found that 26.64% (41,008.66 Ha) of the mangrove area was degraded due to Hurricane Irma along the southwest Florida coastal zone and the other 73.36% (112,924.70 Ha) mangrove area remained intact.
- Convolutional long short-term memory (ConvLSTM)
- Fully convolutional network
- Hurricane Irma
- Mangroves degradation