Mass transport phenomena in copper nanowires at high current density

Yu Ting Huang, Chun Wei Huang, Jui Yuan Chen, Yi Hsin Ting, Shao Liang Cheng, Chien Neng Liao, Wen Wei Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Electromigration in Cu has been extensively investigated as the root cause of typical breakdown failure in Cu interconnects. In this study, Cu nanowires connected to Au electrodes are fabricated and observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the electro- and thermo-migration processes that are induced by direct current sweeps. We observe the dynamic evolution of different mass transport mechanisms. A current density on the order of 106A/cm2and a temperature of approximately 400 °C are sufficient to induce electro- and thermo-migration, respectively. Observations of the migration processes activated by increasing temperatures indicate that the migration direction of Cu atoms is dependent on the net force from the electric field and electron wind. This work is expected to support future design efforts to improve the robustness of Cu interconnects. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1071-1078
Number of pages8
JournalNano Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2016


  • Cu interconnect
  • electromigration
  • high current density
  • mass transport
  • nanowires
  • thermomigration


Dive into the research topics of 'Mass transport phenomena in copper nanowires at high current density'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this