The ionospheric total electron content (TEC) derived from dense ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System receivers over the continental United States and those from global ionosphere maps are utilized to find the ionosphere response to the August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse. Maximum obscurations and their associated TEC major depressions appear simultaneously at midlatitudes, while major depressions elongate toward the magnetic equator with some delays in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region. The former is due to the photochemical loss process, while the latter is caused by the plasma transport of E×B drifts and lunar gravitation forces. TECs of predawn reductions, morning enhancements, afternoon reductions, and nighttime enhancements reveal that the semidiurnal lunar tide are essential. Since a solar eclipse always occurs on a new moon day, the lunar tide results in the early EIA appearance and major depressions being underestimated/diminished before and overestimated/enhanced after about 14:00 local time.
- equatorial ionization anomaly
- lunar tide
- solar eclipse