Least squares/maximum likelihood methods for the decision-Aided GFSK receiver

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4 Scopus citations


Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK) modulation is widely used in low data-rate wireless audio/video transmission and personal communication standards like Bluetooth. In this letter, least squares (LS) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods are exploited for decision-aided carrier recovery in a GFSK receiver. Through the analysis of estimation error variance, we show that the LS/ML carrier frequency offset estimation method outperforms the conventional method using the DFT approach. Besides, the new method is also effective to deal with non-DC-free data sources. Simulation results show that the new decision-aided GFSK receiver achieves better results than the feedforward receivers with DC-free and non-DC-free sources.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)517-520
Number of pages4
JournalIEEE Signal Processing Letters
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2009


  • Bluetooth
  • Carrier frequency offset
  • Decision-aided method
  • GFSK
  • Maximum likelihood


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