We exploit the strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles in the catalytic decomposition of CO to grow various forms of carbonaceous materials. Irradiating gold nanoparticles in a CO environment at their plasmon resonant frequency generates high temperatures and strong electric fields required to break the CO bond. By varying the laser power, exposure time, and gas flow rate, we deposit amorphous carbon, graphitic carbon, and carbon nanotubes. The formation of iron oxide nanocrystals catalyzes the growth of carbon nanotubes. Predefined microstructure geometries are patterned by moving the focused laser spot during the growth process, forming suspended single-walled carbon nanotube structures. Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy are used to characterize the resulting material. The localized nature of the plasmonic heating enables growth of these materials, while the underlying substrate remains at room temperature.