Cognitive radio (CR) is concretely embodied in hierarchical cellular systems by deploying an underlying microcellular system to reuse the underutilized spectrum of a macrocellular system. One of the key challenges to the success of hierarchical cellular systems is to manage the intercell interference between the macrocell and the microcell and to maximize the spectrum efficiency. In this paper, antenna beamforming, power allocation, and multiuser scheduling are jointly designed to opportunistically utilize the macrocell's uplink spectrum in serving multiple secondary microcellular users concurrently. The joint design of antenna beamforming, power allocation, and scheduling with the objective of maximizing the sum rate is indeed a mixed-integer nonlinear programming NP-hard problem. The proposed simpler iterative subgradient projection and semidefinite programming approach can obtain better performance than the conventional zero-forcing beamforming. Furthermore, unlike the optimal singular value decomposition (SVD) beamforming that requires all users to have channel knowledge at the receiver for cooperation, the proposed joint design methodology requires no channel knowledge at the receiver and can outperform the SVD beamforming without user scheduling. When considering both implementation complexity and performance enhancement issues, the proposed joint power allocation, multiuser scheduling, and antenna beamforming technique can help provide important insights into the design of interference management techniques for hierarchical CR systems.
- Hierarchical cell
- multiuser beamforming
- multiuser scheduling
- power allocation
- semi-definite relaxation (SDR)