Investigation of the aberrant record from bus GPS receiver onboard FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 satellite constellation in low Earth orbit

Tzu Hsun Kao, I. Te Lee, Chen Joe Fong, Jann Yenq Liu, Ming Shong Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F7/C2) satellite constellation, a joint Taiwan-US collaboration mission, was launched on 25 June 2019. Following the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC, the F7/C2 mission aims to provide global users the next-generation global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation data. The mission consists of six identical small satellites with an inclination angle of 24°, launched to the parking orbit of 720 km, and then transferred to the mission orbit of 550 km. Each satellite bus is equipped with two commercial off-the-shelf global positioning system receivers manufactured by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. for positioning, navigation, and timing functions. This receiver generates “GPS Receiver (bus GPSR) Warm Start Requested (WSR)” messages after commissioning, which could be considered as a kind of single event effect (SEE). More than 7000 WSR events have been recorded in 3 years after launch, providing another opportunity to investigate the SEE with the commercial off-the-shelf bus GPSR. In addition, the F7/C2 mission is the first satellite constellation that allows scientists to investigate the SEE using the same constellation at different altitudes of Low-Earth orbit. This study investigates and discusses the cumulative rate, distribution of WSRs, and their relationships between altitude and geomagnetic field. The statistical method is applied to define a warning area of the high probability occurring the SEE of this kind of component based on the geomagnetic field, whose corresponding strength is around 21,200/20,550 nT and close to the South Atlantic Anomaly area. Moreover, the relationships with space weather, including the disturbance of the Earth's magnetic field (Kp index) and the solar activity (F10.7 index), are also analyzed and reported.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4474-4484
Number of pages11
JournalAdvances in Space Research
Issue number10
StatePublished - 15 Nov 2023


  • Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)
  • Single Event Effect (SEE)
  • South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA)
  • Warm Start Request (WSR)


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