Intracranial Monitoring to Verify Novel Transcranial Electric Stimulation in an Epileptic Swine Model

Yu Chi Wang, Po Fang Wang, Han Chi Pan, Chuan Yi Lin, Hao Teng Hsu, Zhuo Hao Liu, Po Lei Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Invasive deep brain stimulation has proven to be clinically therapeutic for patients with drug-refractory epilepsy. The aim of this study was to develop a novel transcranial electrical device as a noninvasive stimulation modality for seizure treatment. We fabricated a novel transcranial electrical device and tested it in four swine brains with depth electrodes surgically implanted under neuro-navigation. Stimulation with two high-frequency alternating currents was used to cause an interference envelope. Acute focal epilepsy was induced by a subcortical injection of penicillin and specific anesthesia protocol. The frequency and electric field of the stimulation in the hippocampus were investigated. The two frequencies (2 k and 2.14 kHz) of stimulation successfully caused an envelope of 140 Hz. With 1 mA stimulation, the electric field degraded gradually and induced an in situ electric field of 0.68 mV/mm in the hippocampi. The interference mode transcranial electric stimulation attenuated the originally induced epileptic form discharges. No neuronal or axonal injuries were noted histopathologically after the stimulation. The feasibility and biosafety of our proposed device were preliminarily verified. Future translational research should focus on the electrode deposition and stimulation parameters for a quantitative therapeutic effect.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2195
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • epilepsy
  • swine
  • transcranial alternating current stimulation
  • transcranial electric stimulation


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