Instantaneous amplitude of low-latitude ionospheric irregularities probed by ROCSAT-1, DEMETER, and FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2

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The occurrence probability of plasma irregularities has long been used to quantify that of ionospheric scintillations. We use the Hilbert-Huang transform to examine the occurrence probability and the instantaneous total amplitude of plasma irregularities in the low-latitude nighttime ionosphere observed by the low-inclination satellites, ROCSAT-1 during 1999–2004 and FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F7C2) in 2020, as well as a high-inclination satellite, DEMETER, during 2006–2010. Generally, the longitudinal distribution of the occurrence probability is similar to that of the total amplitude, except that the probability of ion density irregularity observed by F7C2 and DEMETER yields nonphysical anomalous enhancements over the South American sector during May–August of 2007–2010 and 2020, respectively. S4 scintillations observed by F7C2 show that the anomalous enhancement results from the low ambient density in calculating the occurrence probability during the low solar activity year of 2020. We suggest the instantaneous total amplitude as a better indicator for describing ionospheric plasma irregularities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)723-732
Number of pages10
JournalAdvances in Space Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • Hilbert Huang Transform
  • Ionospheric irregularities
  • Occurrence probability


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